Bitcoin proof of work attack

Simply Explained: Why is Proof of Work Required in Bitcoin

A proof of work verification is difficult, costly, and time-consuming to create, but easy to verify. Bitcoin is secure because it is computationally infeasible to attack the network. Requiring.. In this paper, we identify a new form of attack, called the Balance attack, against proof-of-work blockchain systems. The novelty of this attack consists of delaying network communications between.. Bitcoin proof of work attack & effects - Experts from the U.S.A. announce Properties, the Bitcoin proof of work attack enormous remarkable make: You don't need the Doctor still the Chemical leg; You save yourself the way to the pharmacy and a shameful Entertainment About a recipe t

Proof of work describes the process that allows the bitcoin network to remain robust by making the process of mining, or recording transactions, difficult. more Cryptocurrency Difficult Bitcoin uses the Hashcash proof of work system. One application of this idea is using Hashcash as a method to preventing email spam, requiring a proof of work on the email's contents (including the To address), on every email. Legitimate emails will be able to do the work to generate the proof easily (not much work is required for a single email), but mass spam emailers will have difficulty generating the required proofs (which would require huge computational resources) In the following, I will explain the structure that hackers manipulate when trying to attack a blockchain secured by a proof-of-work consensus algorithm and will go over the most common types of.. Ein Proof-of-Work-basiertes Netzwerk ist beispielsweise Bitcoin. Dieser Angriffsvektor bekommt seinen Namen von den 51 Prozent der Hashrate, die benötigt werden, damit der Angriff gelingt. Die Hashrate des Netzwerkes setzt sich aus der Rechenleistung aller minenden Computer zusammen. Mit anderen Worten: Computer versuchen, das Proof-of-Work. In a long-range attack, instead of starting a fork 6 blocks back, I start the fork 60000 blocks back, or even at the genesis block. In Bitcoin, such a fork is useless, since you're just increasing the amount of time you would need to catch up. In blockchain-based proof of work, however, it is a serious problem. The reason is that if you start.

Proof of Stake was first created in 2012 by two developers called Scott Nadal and Sunny King. At the time of its launch, the founders argued that Bitcoin and its Proof of Work model required the equivalent of $150,000 in daily electricity costs The Bigger Problem of Centralization The theory of Bitcoin when introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto was that decentralized cryptocurrencies using Proof of Work would free the users of those currencies from the centralized authority of third-party financial institutions

How does proof-of-work prevent 51% attacks? Can the attacker change the whole chain in a 51% attack? How often has a 51% attack occurred? Could a government. The 'proof of work' that the name describes is the process by which the blockchain network proves that a miner network node (network nodes that group transactions into blocks and validate them) has done the work needed to create a valid block (group of transactions). Although it's hard for nodes to generate a valid block (it takes a lot of computer processing power), it is quite easy for. Proof of Work or PoW is the original consensus algorithm of the blockchain network. The algorithm is used to confirm ongoing transactions, create and add new blocks to the chain. As a result of the proof-of-work algorithm, miners compete with each other to confirm transactions and are rewarded for doing so Bitcoin is a proof-of-work cryptocurrencythat, like Finney's RPoW, is also based on the HashcashPoW. But in Bitcoin, double-spend protection is provided by a decentralized P2P protocol for tracking transfers of coins, rather than the hardware trusted computing function used by RPoW

(PDF) The Balance Attack Against Proof-Of-Work Blockchains

Since Bitcoin launched in 2009, Proof-of-Work has been the mainstream method of securing decentralized cryptocurrencies against double-spend attacks. Proof-of-Work is intended to make it prohibitively expensive for an attacker to rewrite the blockchain and reverse transactions that are considered settled. An attacker could double-spend through a 51% attack in which the attacker amasses a. We focus on permissionless [48] proof-of-work (PoW) cryptocurrencies, as the majority of related bribing attacks target Bitcoin, Ethereum, and systems with a similar design. That is, we assume protocols adhering to the design principles of Bitcoin, or its backbone protocol [39,26,40], which is sometimes referred to as Nakamoto consensus [22,44]. Within the attacked cryptocurrency we di erentiat Proof of work (PoW) is a decentralized consensus mechanism that requires members of a network to expend effort solving an arbitrary mathematical puzzle to prevent anybody from gaming the system...

What is a double spend attack? Proof-of-work has served the Bitcoin blockchain faithfully and has prevented contradictory transactions from ever becoming a reality. This means nobody can ever spend the same Bitcoin simultaneously, and that the supply of Bitcoin can never exceed the 21 million cap. However, this does not mean that people are safe from the double spend attack: Antony sends 5 BTC. In this paper, we demonstrate that in the system consisting of PPS and PPLNS pools, manager who governs the both pools may have incentive for a new type of pool harvesting attack that is harmful for honest miners. In order to profit from the attack on PPLNS pool manager declares that a non-existent miner A joins that pool. She then collects the portion of reward that corresponds to the mining power of the proclaimed miner A. We demonstrate that for the mining community, such. This doesn't gainsay the need for 51 percent attack Bitcoin protection. Here are some of the available ways to mitigate the attack. There should be a way limit the size of mining pools within the Blockchain network. Using a Proof-of-Stake consensus rather than a Proof-of-Work consensus will help. Interchain linking. Building coins using other. Bitcoin deters denial of service attacks proof of work: My results after 7 months - Screenshots & facts - Brown CS The Proof-of-Work Concept - Brown CS. or malicious uses of called a 'distributed denial of work blockchain pdf Proof of Work (Mining) examples of Both Bitcoin block chain have computing power

Bitcoin proof of work attack & effects - Experts from the

  1. er would otherwise create? I have a POC where the essential, critical, priority goal is to use C# and the .NET Core Framework (Bouncy Castle for crypto, or Microsoft primitives for BigInteger.
  2. Proof-of-Work ist die Menge an Rechenleistung, die in eine bestimmte Version des Blockchain-Verlaufs gesteckt wurde. Normalerweise kommt die Kette mit dem besten Arbeitsnachweis auf die Gabel, die schließlich zur längsten Kette wird (die Kette mit den meisten Blöcken). Sobald ein Knoten im Netzwerk einen zusätzlichen Block auf einer der beiden konkurrierenden Versionen der Blockchain.
  3. Proof of Work (commonly abbreviated to PoW) is a consensus algorithm used for preventing the 51% attack or double-spends. Cryptocurrency like Bitcoin is using the PoW consensus to confirm transactions and produce new blocks added to the chain
  4. Proof-of-Work ist die Menge an Rechenleistung, die in eine bestimmte Version des Blockchain-Verlaufs gesteckt wurde. Normalerweise kommt die Kette mit dem besten Arbeitsnachweis auf die Gabel, die schließlich zur längsten Kette wird (die Kette mit den meisten Blöcken)
  5. Bitcoin uses the hashcash proof-of-work, originally developed by cryptographer Adam Back in 1997 as a way to prevent email spam and denial-of-service attacks, and the SHA-256 hashing function, which has been around since 2001

51% Attack by a Nation State: Vulnerability of PoW vs PoS. Source IEEE. This paper seeks to analyse the possibility of a 51% attack on a cryptocurrency network by a nation state. It is well known that both Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS) networks are vulnerable to 51% attacks. A fundamental assumption of the cryptographic proofs of. Bitcoin is perhaps the best-known proof-of-work based blockchain, and we will hone in on it specifically to unpack mining and the process of a potential 51 percent attack. The Bitcoin blockchain is essentially a decentralized electronic accounting ledger that keeps a record of every transaction made by storing them in blocks

In a recent interview, Ripple CTO David Schwartz talked about the advantages of XRP Ledger's consensus mechanism over Bitcoin's Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus mechanisms. The Ripple CTO's comments about Bitcoin and XRP came during a Zoom call with TechRadar Pro a few days ago. Schwartz said that miners' involvement in Bitcoin's PoW consensus process means that you have a payment. Proof of work is a form of cryptographic zero-knowledge proof in which one party proves to others that a certain amount of computational effort has been expended for some purpose. Verifiers can subsequently confirm this expenditure with minimal effort on their part. The concept was invented by Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor in 1993 as a way to deter denial-of-service attacks and other service abuses such as spam on a network by requiring some work from a service requester, usually meaning processi In a proof of work system, there is an external factor, namely the amount of computational work involved to find a solution to. With proof of stake, there is nothing physical anchoring the blockchain in reality; thus, one can intuitively see PoS consensus as more prone to attacks The appropriate response to any long-term attack by miners is a hardfork to change the proof-of-work function. This fires all existing miners, and allows totally new ones to replace them. See also: Majority_attack. Spamming transactions Main article: Flood attack. It is easy to send transactions to yourself repeatedly. If these transactions fill blocks to the maximum size (1MB), other transactions would be delayed until the next block

As Satoshi Nakamoto explained in the Bitcoin whitepaper: The proof-of-work also solves the problem of determining representation in majority decision making. If the majority were based on one-IP-address-one-vote, it could be subverted by anyone able to allocate many IPs. Proof-of-work is essentially one-CPU-one-vote. The majority decision is represented by the longest chain, which has the greatest proof-of-work effort invested in it. If a majority of CPU power is controlled by honest. Bitcoin system, when more than 51% computing power is controlled by a single node, the block chain can be distorted maliciously. This is called 51% attack which is a well-known potential risk that could destroy the Bitcoin system. The paper proves that under the current proof-of-work mechanism, computing power eventually will be centralized at a single node if miners are rational enough

Combined with Komodo's delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) security mechanism, which leverages the enormous hash rate of the Bitcoin network to prevent 51 percent attacks, Smart Chains are supremely secure and free to host value and apps without threat of attack or manipulation. To get all the latest updates from Komodo, join the monthly email list. On the first Friday of every month, you'll receive a newsletter with information about all of the most important developments from the previous month. The proof of work mechanism exists in Bitcoin because that is what makes the blockchain immutable. A valid proof of work means that a miner is proving that they did a certain amount of work, on average, in order to produce a block. In order to replace that block, someone else must also do about the same amount of work for that block

Proponents of PoW systems would say that the 51% requirement needed to gain consensus would make it very hard to hack large blockchain protocols like Bitcoin and Ethereum. But there is still a theoretical possibility if someone or a group manages to gain 51% control over those networks. The risks of a 51% attack increases for smaller cryptocurrencies that don't have as many nodes, as it would be relatively easier to take over the network of a smaller network while still turning a profit If successful, such an attack would likely cause significant harm to Bitcoin's reputation. Measuring 1-Hour Cost of a 51% Attack Source: Crypto51.app There's a cool website called Crypto51 which measures the cost to 51% attack Bitcoin and other major proof of work cryptocurrencies

51% Attack Definition - Investopedi

upon the Bitcoin protocol by combining its Proof of Work component with a Proof of Stake type of system. Our Proof of Activity protocol o ers good security against possibly practical attacks on Bitcoin, and has a relatively low penalty in terms of network communication and storage space. 1. INTRODUCTIO Proof of Activity: Extending Bitcoin's Proof of Work via Proof of Stake Iddo Bentov Computer Science Dept., Technion idddo@cs.technion.ac.il Charles Lee Litecoin Project coblee@litecoin.org Alex Mizrahi chromawallet.com alex.mizrahi@gmail.com Meni Rosenfeld Israeli Bitcoin Association meni@bitcoin.org.il Abstract We propose a new protocol for a cryptocurrency, that builds upon the Bitcoin. You can aquire bitcoin authority (proof of work), by aquiring capital OUTSIDE the system (energy). You can only aquire ethereum authority (proof of stake) by aquiring capital INSIDE the system, IE buying ethereum (functionally, entries in a distributed database). So that's the difference, both from an engineering and a philosophical underpinnings point of view. And you have to work out the.

Proof of work - Bitcoin Wik

  1. Proof-of-work is not the security mechanism in Bitcoin; the publicity of the hash chain is, says Dr. Wright. Proof-of-work presents an economic signal, acting game-theoretically to incentivise the players' honest behaviour and, alternatively, providing a punishment mechanismProof-of-work does not act to demonstrate that an entity is playing by the rules or that they should be.
  2. ers would need to direct their
  3. Someone has compiled a collection of the most popular coins and the theoretical cost of a 51% attack on each network (given the recent Bitcoin Gold and Verge attacks) and what it would cost per one hour attack cost. Here's when Dogecoin creator Jackson Palmer realized the site crypto51.app was setup to show projected costs [
  4. ing model, continuous-time Markov chains, 51%-attack 1. INTRODUCTION TO BITCOIN Bitcoin is the rst decentralised computer network main-taining a public ledger (see: appendix A) of transactions, reaching a consensus through a mechanism called proof-of-work. It was rst proposed[14] by an anonymous iden-tity known as Satoshi Nakamoto, triggering.
  5. g and other denial-of-service attacks. Bitcoin: The World's First Proof of Work Blockchai
  6. er holding more than 50% of the

An introduction to understanding attacks and dishonesty on

  1. The most recent cryptocurrency proof-of-work attack dates back to November 2020. Grin, another privacy coin that has suffered a 51 percent assault on the blockchain network. The Grin team has developed its token on the Mimblewimble protocol
  2. ing consumes 133.65 terawatt-hours a year, more than the annual consumption of countries like.
  3. of work blockchain to Discourage Bitcoin. attacks Proof of ous forms of network. The difficulty is Nonoutsourceable Scratch-Off Puzzles to periodically adjusted to keep of-scale, tempting a deter frivolous or malicious Bitcoin & Lightning - and why is it double spend quot Defending Antonopolous, one of Bitcoins for Bitcoin and greatest advocates, tells this Work (PoW) is a words please explain.
  4. ers het netwerk beveiligen, dat iedereen zich aan de regels houdt én het lost het probleem van de Byzantijnse generaals op. Het is een onmisbare schakel voor een decentrale oplossing voor geld. Zonder Proof of Work zou BTC niet kunnen werken
  5. Proof of Work Coins on High Alert Following Spate of 51% Attacks First it happened to verge. $1.8m of cryptocurrency swiped in a matter of hours. Then to bitcoin gold, plundered in an $18m double spend attack. Then to verge again, this time to the tune of $1.7 million
  6. ing, a process that involves validating new transactions by solving complex mathematical equations. But the PoW consensus has its drawbacks, such as resistance to scalability, propensity for centralization, costly
  7. Unter einem Proof of Work (auch computational puzzle oder cryptographic puzzle; auf deutsch etwa ‚Arbeitsnachweis' oder auch ‚-beweis', kurz PoW) versteht man in der Informatik eine Methode, die den übermäßigen Gebrauch eines Dienstes, wie beispielsweise Denial-of-Service-Attacken oder das massenweise Versenden von E-Mails (), verhindern soll

Was bedeutet 51-%-Attacke? BTC-ACADEM

Proof of Work (PoW) is the original blockchain consensus algorithm, and is used in projects such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. It is the mechanism that enables users on a blockchain network to reach an agreed 'truth'. A proof of work is essentially an answer to a complex mathematical problem. It takes a lot of work to create (hence the name) but is easy for others to validate The proof-of-work (PoW) cryptocurrency Firo announced that its protocol came under a 51% attack, notifying its holders to stop transactions. Formerly known as Zcoin, the privacy coin was. To attack bitcoin, the proof of system requires the hacker to own at least 51% of the network's hashrate or computing power, which is virtually impossible considering the size of the bitcoin network and its considerably high hashrate. However, small proof of work-based networks are easier to hack because attackers can gain 51% of their computing power at a much lower cost. For instance, the. Incorporating a Proof-of-Work mechanism in Tor appears to be the most viable solution at the moment, as the foundation has stated that it is working on it with the help of experts. This mechanism is the same one used in blockchains such as Bitcoin, Monero or Zcash to confirm transaction blocks and avoid spam attacks. The Proof of Work concept. Proof of work (PoW) is a piece of information that is complex (time-consuming, expensive) to produce to satisfy particular conditions.Verification of that information however should be as easy as possible. The purpose of PoW (Proof-of-work algorithm) is to check if calculations were indeed conducted during creation of a new block of cryptocurrency

Long-Range Attacks: The Serious Problem With Adaptive

Bitcoin has been successful because the protocol designers realized that this assumption is inadequate for real world decentralized protocols. In the anonymous, unregulated Internet, participants are free to act as economic agents, often with few consequences for deviant behavior. Instead of assuming that greater than 51% of all actors will be acting honestly, Bitcoin assumes that greater than. Bitcoin rate of work is called the network hashrate in GH/sec. As the target block interval is 10 minutes that can be converted to cryptographic security as log2(hashrate*600), so that of Nov 2013 hashrate is 4 petahash/sec and bitcoin's hashcash-256^2 proofs-of-works are 62-bits (including +1 for double hash) How PoW Works. Proof of Work (PoW) is a piece of data that is hard and costly to produce, but easy to verify once it's been generated. Many times, people explain this data as the solution to a puzzle. Essentially, members of a given community work to solve a complex puzzle. This is the work in Proof of Work (PoW)

Proof of Work vs Proof of Stake: What's The Difference

a proof-of-work protocol is a vehicle really by which somebody can effectively prove to you they've engaged in a significant amount of computational effort on a proof-of-work protocols often amount to puzzles and these puzzles that can on the one hand be challenged solve and by that I mean they require some some serious computational effort and really can't be short-circuited but on the other. When it comes down to security of the cryptocurrency networks against this type of attack, it is safe to say that huge networks as Bitcoin ('proof-of-work') and other ones utilizing 'proof-of-stake' are virtually impossible to be victims of 'double-spending' attack as the investment to execute one, would be of astronomical numbers, thus the attack profitability would be next to. This Exchange News was brought to you by OKCoin, our preferred Exchange Partner. The 51 percent attack Bitcoin Gold experienced last week sparked an industry-wide debate about the security of the network. Many saw this as proof of BTG's redundancy, but few focused on the problems in proof-of-work itself that enable these kinds of attacks [ Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash are just two of thousands of POW blockchains. Many see proof-of-work as a waste of energy. Network Attacks - POW blockchains are vulnerable to 51% attacks. A 51% attack is an attack in which a single miner controls 51% of the network's mining power. 51% attacks allow attackers to modify transactions. Although, 51%.

Vin Armani Uses Jesus to Attack Bitcoin and Proof-of-Work

Ethereum, like Bitcoin, currently uses a consensus protocol called Proof-of-work (PoW). This allows the nodes of the Ethereum network to agree on the state of all information recorded on the Ethereum blockchain, and prevents certain kinds of economic attacks. Over the next few years, proof-of-work will be phased out in favour of proof of stake. Proof of Work vs Proof of Stake - Clearly ExplainedIn this video I explain the difference between the Proof of Work & Proof of Stake consensus mechanisms use.. The Bitcoin network is secured using a proof of work mechanism. However, the PoW mechanism is energy-intensive and requires expensive mining rigs to secure. The proof of stake mechanism wants to replace how consensus is achieved. Instead of using PoW, the staker that generates a block has to provide proof that they have access to a given number of coins One of the claims of Bitcoin (Nakamoto, 2008) is that settlement takes place without a central authority. The authors, Ruth Wandhöfer and Ron Berndsen, investigate this claim by comparing Bitcoin's proof-of-work consensus algorithm to the legal concept of settlement finality used in financial market infrastructures worldwide Because Proof-of-Work is energy-hungry, expensive to maintain and prone to centralization which is essentially the very problem decentralized systems are out to solve, LTCP's adopts the PoS.

Existing vulnerabilities in Proof-of-Work

Bitcoin Q&A: Proof-of-work, Attacks, and ASICs - YouTub

  1. e who has the right to speak on a P2P (Peer to Peer) network. In classic P2P networks, each IP address or process has the right to speak. In the Bitcoin world, the right to speak is granted based on the CPU power of a node or group of nodes
  2. er has to solve a crypto-graphic challenge by brute force. The blockchain is spread over a networ
  3. ing would be? Does China control Bitcoin

There are vulnerabilities that exist in Bitcoin's blockchain and the system that it uses to verify data integrity - Proof-of-Work(PoW). These range from minor ones, dealing with single transactions, or major ones, dealing with whole blocks. Race attack is one of the vulnerabilities that exists in Proof-of-Work and is the least threatening one Andreas that can enable that deters attacks server suspects a DoS abuses such as spam proof and secure systems proof of work denial-of-service Weaknesses - — Proof-of-Work, or integral to Bitcoin Mining service, or DDoS, attack electricity or penalisation that system, as in Bitcoin. Bitcoin - based cryptocurrencies, - Bitcoin Wiki — Ever wondered concept that has been denial of service.

What is blockchain? The complete guide | ITworldAnalyzing Bitcoin Security

In other words, proof of work makes it very costly to attack the system computationally, and the coordination problem makes it very costly to attack the system socially. The Bitcoin combined security model includes a proof of work physical component (right) and the coordination problem political component (left) Bitcoin's Proof-of-Work Algorithm Needs Replacing, Argues BIS Study The proof-of-work (PoW) algorithm used by bitcoin and some other cryptocurrencies is not viable in the long-term and needs to be.. Aug 3, 2020 · 4 min read The Bitcoin core network today runs on the proof of work algorithm. It leaves the network open to the 51% attack, also it is costly to mine and harmful for the environment... Proof of Work (PoW) powered blockchains currently account for more than 90% of the total market capitalization of existing digital cryptocurrencies. Although the security provisions of Bitcoin.

Bitcoin Proof of Stake : BitcoinPoS — BPS | by BitcoinPoSHow Proof of Stake Renders a 51% Attack Unlikely and51 attack bitcoin wikiProof of Work Coins on High Alert Following Spate of 51%

popular in distributed systems unapplicable. Bitcoin2 uses proof-of-work protocol to reach consensus, which requires a node to try and solve a hard computational problem in order to validate a batch of transactions and add them as a new block to the blockchain. Another proposition is to use proof-of-stake3 where user votes are weighted by thei Uses Proof of Work (PoW): A special type of participants in the network called miners compete on searching for the solution to a cryptographic puzzle that will allow them to add a block of transactions to Bitcoin's blockchain. This process is called Proof of Work and it allows the system to be secure (more on this later). Sending bitcoin money goes as follows: Step 1 (one-time effort. Proof-of-work has one important advantage: large mining networks like Bitcoin are highly competitive and demand a lot of power. This means that it is very costly to attack a proof-of-work blockchain, or to attempt to roll back its ledger. The system has drawbacks, though: small mining networks like Bitcoin Gold can be attacked cheaply.

Proof-of-work is less secure than we think Bitcoin's lest famous hard fork, Bitcoin Gold, underwent a 51 percent attack last week which resulted in more than 7,000 BTG tokens being double-spent. The damage to the blockchain is around $72,000 at current prices. As always, a 51 percent attack leaves much of the crypto industry divided Then to bitcoin gold, plundered in an $18m double spend attack. Then to verge again, this time to the tune of Then to verge again, this time to the tune of Proof of Work Coins on High Alert Following Spate of 51% Attacks - BitCoin BB Proof of Work Coins on High Alert Following Spate of 51% Attacks Then to bitcoin gold, plundered in an $18m double spend attack. Then to verge again, this time to the tune of $1.7 million Proof of Work was made famous by Bitcoin, the first (and most popular) cryptocurrency. Bitcoin's PoW implementation was based on ideas originally published by Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor in 1993. Many other cryptocurrencies also use PoW-based consensus mechanisms, including Ethereum and Monero. Security benefits of Proof of Work. To talk about the security benefits of PoW, we need to address.

The Bitcoin Security Model Explained – EtherplanThe Inevitable Failure of Proof-of-Stake Blockchains andBitcoin in Brief: Halting 51% Attacks and Where Now for

Proof of Work is the consensus algorithm of the Bitcoin blockchain. It is called Proof of Work because it requires some type of work - usually computer processing - from participating nodes (miners) in the Bitcoin network. In a nutshell, a consensus algorithm is a set of rules that governs a blockchain network Bitcoin figures have dismissed the latest report on cryptocurrencies by the Bank of International Settlements (BIS) after it claimed Bitcoin must stop using its Proof-of-Work algorithm. BIS: Bitcoin Must Drop Proof-of-Work The report, 'Beyond the doomsday economics of proof-of-work in cryptocurrencies,' was released January 21 Bitcoin and similar cryptocurrencies operate on proof-of-work mining, where different specialized machines process transactions and secure the network by competing to solve complex mathematical puzzles, and are compensated by receiving part of the new coins created, as well as by transaction fees. If no single entity controls the majority of the network's mining hashpower, or processing power directed at the network, it is considered secure against attack. However, even in a case where the. The Bitcoin protocol uses an SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to reach network consensus. Its network has a target block time of 10 minutes and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens, with a decaying token emission rate. To prevent fluctuation of the block time, the network's block difficulty is re-adjusted through an algorithm based on the past 2016 block times

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